Photo Gallery of Various NEBULA

Hydrogen Atomic Orbitals

Representations of the probability density of hydrogen s orbitals. Images of the 3-D probability densities of hydrogen 1s, 2s, and 3s orbitals in a glass block show the spherical shape of the orbitals together with the inner nodes.

Hydrogen 1s, 2s, and 3s orbitals on the same scale. The top view is the same as the side view.

Hydrogen 2p, 3p, and 4p orbitals on the same scale. The top view is similar to 1s, 2s, and 3s orbitals.

Hydrogen 2p, 3p, and 4p orbitals from the another direction. The top view is the same as the left side view.

Hydrogen 3d(3z2-r2) orbital

Hydrogen 3d(3z2-r2), 4d(3z2-r2) and 5d(3z2-r2) orbitals.
Can you image the top view? The answer is in the 30-piece set of NEBULA and the following explanation below.


Hydrogen 3d(zx), 4d(zx) and 5d(zx) orbitals. The top view is similar to 2px, 3px, and 4px orbitals.

Hydrogen 4d(zx) orbital. The top view is similar to 3px orbital.

Hydrogen 4d(xy) orbital. The side view is similar to 3px orbital.


Hydrogen 4f(5z3-3zr2) orbital

Hydrogen 4f(x3-3xy2) orbital


The 30-piece set of NEBULA
The complete set of hydrogen 1s to 4f(3yx2-y3) orbitals







The orbital patterns in the view from z axis are classified by the magnetic quantum number, m , as follows.
s orbital pattern | m | = 0
p orbital pattern | m | = 1
d orbital pattern | m | = 2
f orbital pattern | m | = 3
g orbital pattern | m | = 4

in case of | m | = 0

the view from z axis





the view from y axis



in case of | m | = 1

the view from z axis





the view from y axis



in case of | m | = 2

the view from z axis





the view from y axis





Hybridized Orbitals

Carbon three sp2 orbitals
Centers of these orbitals are moved on the vertices of a regular triangle. Common origin gives a cylindrical pattern.



Fe d2sp3 orbital

Fe six d2sp3 orbitals
Centers of these orbitals are moved on the vertices of a regular octahedron.













Molecular Orbitals


H2 LUMO(top)
HOMO(bottom)





Ethylene pi orbitals







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